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1095


 

 

1095 is a very simple high carbon steel that is easy to shape by forging; it lacks some of the manganese of the other 10XX series and thus has a slightly lower hardenability. It added carbon creates a carbon rich martensite with plenty of free carbide for good abrasion resistance. The downside of the extra carbon is that it requires more care in the heat treatment, avoid lamellar annealing and overheating.

 

 

Recommended Working Sequence For 1095

 

Forging: heat to 2100F (1150C) . Do not forge below 1500F (815C).

 

Normalizing: Heat to 1575F (855C). Cool in still air.

 

Annealing: Heat to 1475F (800C). Furnace cool to 1200F (650C) at a rate not exceeding 50F (28C) per hour.

 

Grinding or Machining

 

Hardening: Austenitize- Heat to 1475F (800C). In thicker sections can be quenched in water or brine with extreme care but can also be oil quenched in sections under 1/4 in. (6.35 mm) thick as the preferred method.

 

Tempering: As-quenched hardness of approximately 66 HRC. Hardness can be adjusted downward by proper tempering.

 

Polish

 

 

 

I-T / TTT diagram for 1095:

 

 

 

 

The following tempering guidelines apply to 1095 that has been hardened to industrial standards. Knifemakers using other methods will have to adjust the resulting hardness numbers downward for the same temperatures.

 

Tempering Temperature

Rockwell

Hardness

oC

oF

HRC

149

300

65

177

350

63-64

204

400

62-63

232

450

61-62

260

500

59-60

288

550

57-58

316

600

55-56

343

650

53-54

 

 

 

*The above information is based upon personal experience and testing along with data from ASM International, Carpenter Steel and Crucible Service Centers.

 


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All images and text Copyrighted 2006 Kevin R. Cashen, www.cashenblades.com, all rights reserved.